ISSN-Online: 2707-5052                         ISSN-Print: 2707-5060


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research (DIJBAR)





Author Guidelines












December 2024

Samara University, Ethiopia












Ethical issues5

Plagiarism, Data fabrication or Falsification7





Submission checklist 10

Manuscript content and format 10















Daagu International journal of Basic and Applied Research (DIJBAR) is a multidisciplinary, peer reviewed open access journal available online and in printed version to accommodate research articles from all streams of science and art. 

DAAGU- is an “Afarf” word used by the pastoral and agro-pastoral community of Afar for “Information Sharing”. Samara University located in Afar Region of Ethiopia, has a mission to become one among the top 10 universities around the globe, to serve the pastoral community. 

Public Universities like Samara University (SU) are established with the mandate to address core academic activities such as teaching, research and community services delivery. Samara University has been established to be one of the top ten leading Universities in pastoral and agro-pastoral community development in East Africa by 2035. To achieve this vision, SU is handling three important mandates explicitly teaching and learning, research and community services and technology transfer. Accordingly, one of its mandates is to undertake quality and demand driven problem solving research. 

The research and community service affairs Vice President office of Samara University is coordinating Research and community services. The research priorities had been in line with the strategic plan to transform research at SU. The priority and thematic areas of different Colleges feed SU goals and objectives to benefit pastoral community living in this Regional state. 

Research journal is one of the quick means to communicate and highlight the research findings; scientific knowledge and technologies of regional, national and international importance to benefit teaching/scientific community for the development of nations and humanity. Hence, the University decided to establish a research journal. 

Authors from various disciplines are invited to submit their original work which is not published before and not under consideration to other journals/society. Daagu International journal of Basic and Applied Research (DIJBAR) is biannual journal accepting articles, regular research paper, review articles and short communications through our online submission system whole of the year. We are publishing the articles both in online as well as printed format. Even though, we are biannual but online version of article is available after acceptance of article and reception of copyright form and final submission of article for citation purpose. To help the scientific society and scholars, no publication fee will be levied upon. For more details authors are advised to go through the publication process and author section to access the submission guidelines. For any problem related to submission author can write the email to editor in chief or admin, we will revert back to you within two to three business days. We are happy to listen the feedback/constructive comments and suggestions from author, reader, scholars and scientific society to improve the services of our website and publication process.


The Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research (DIJBAR) is an international, multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed academic and research journal. It provides a platform for the publication of innovative and scientific research in the areas of science and development. The journal welcomes original investigations and accepts papers that represent diverse theoretical outlooks and different methodological approaches. The review and selection process for the journal focuses on the significance of the contribution to the area of academics and research. The journal aims to publish high-quality research that makes a meaningful impact in its respective field. 


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is a research journal that publishes research related to Multidisciplinary. It publishes original articles, review articles, short communications, book reviews and books.  


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is biannual. It publishes a minimum of five articles per issue.


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License. The copyright is reserved for Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research.



Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that provides immediate open access to its content under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License

The journal's open-access policy is based on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. 

Authors are not charged any Article Processing Charges (APCs) or other publication fees. This policy ensures that authors can publish their research without any financial burden and promotes the dissemination of knowledge.



The publication of Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is supported by the Samara University. 



Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research follows a rigorous review process for all submitted papers. At least two reviewers are recruited based on their knowledge or affinity with the main subjects of the article. 

Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research follows double-blind review. Reviewers are known to the editors of Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. The reviewers are asked to review the accuracy and suitability of the article to the focus and scope of Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. They are also asked to comment on the structure and composition of the article and make suggestions for improvements and recommendations where relevant. 

The review process is an essential quality control mechanism for scholarly works. Peer reviewers evaluate the quality of the content and make recommendations to the journal editor on whether the manuscript should be rejected or accepted with or without revisions. The journal editor considers all the feedback from peer reviewers and makes an informed decision to accept or reject the manuscript. The ultimate decision generally resides with the section editor or the editor-in-chief, once they have seen and evaluated the comments of the reviewers.

Suggesting/excluding reviewers

Authors can suggest suitable reviewers and/or request the exclusion of certain individuals when submitting their manuscripts. The suggested reviewers should be independent and not connected to the work. It is recommended to suggest a mix of reviewers from different countries and institutions. The Corresponding Author must provide an institutional email address for each suggested reviewer. If this is not possible, other means of verifying the identity, such as a link to a personal homepage or publication record, can be included. The Journal may not use the suggestions, but they are appreciated and may help facilitate the peer review process.


Once the review process is completed, the Editorial Office of the journal will make a decision based on the reviewers' reports. The author(s) will receive these reports along with the editorial decision on their manuscript. It is important for authors to note that even if one reviewer provides a positive report, concerns raised by another reviewer may still have a significant impact on the study and could result in the manuscript being rejected. Alternatively, the editorial office may choose to entertain the manuscript and send it for review by another reviewer, depending on the decision categories. The decision outcome will be communicated to the authors, providing them with the necessary feedback and guidance for further action.



The Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research upholds international standards and requirements for research and publication. It emphasizes the importance of conducting research ethically, responsibly, and with integrity, while complying with relevant international codes. The journal's policy outlines guidelines for the publication process.


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research has specific standards and policies that authors must adhere to when submitting their manuscripts. By submitting a manuscript to the journal, all authors agree to its content and structure and confirm that the manuscript conforms to the journal's standards and policies. The journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps, third-party data sets, and institutional affiliations. Papers submitted to the journal must not have been published elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published dissertation or thesis, and must not be under consideration by any other journal or publisher for possible publication. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the submission and publication of the manuscript have been approved by all the other co-authors. It is also the authors' responsibility to ensure that manuscripts emanating from a particular institution are submitted with the approval of the concerned institution. The Editorial Office of the journal officially acknowledges receipt of manuscripts submitted for publication. Further correspondence and proofs will be sent to the corresponding author(s) before publication unless otherwise indicated. The corresponding author is also expected to sign a consent form once their manuscript is accepted by the journal.


Ethical issues

Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is committed to maintaining international standards of ethical conduct in research and publication. The journal takes a strong stance against all forms of unethical conduct in research and publication, including fraud, plagiarism, data fabrication, duplicate publication, and other forms of misconduct.

Errors in research could be due to negligence or honest mistakes, which are part of the normal course of doing research. However, scientific frauds that could put scientific merits and careers at risk will be treated seriously. If potential misconduct is reported by the reviewer(s) or editor, the editorial office will correspond with the author and request verification. If the explanation provided by the author is unacceptable and it seems that misconduct has taken place, the editorial office has the right to decide on the fate of the manuscript and even ban the author(s) from further submission.


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research follows fundamental ethical principles in research and publication. These principles include reporting data, results, methods, and procedures; avoiding bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, and other aspects of research; keeping promises and agreements, acting with sincerity, striving for consistency of thought and action; avoiding careless errors and negligence and carefully and critically examining one's own work and the work of one's peers; honoring patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property and not using unpublished data, methods, or results without permission and giving credit where credit is due, and avoiding plagiarism; protecting confidential communications, such as papers submitted for publication, personnel records, patient records, etc.; avoiding wasteful and duplicative publication; striving to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy; avoiding discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity; maintaining and improving one's own professional competence; showing proper respect and care for animals when using them in research and not conducting unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments; and when conducting research on human subjects, minimizing harms and risks and maximizing benefits, respecting human dignity, privacy, and autonomy.


 Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research has procedures in place for responding to unethical conduct in publication. Each issue is followed by recommended actions as advised by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for Journal Editors. These guidelines are similar to those followed by other reputable journals, which emphasize the importance of ethical research practices and adherence to international standards.


Plagiarism, Data fabrication or Falsification

Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is committed to upholding ethical standards in research and publication. The journal takes a strong stance against all forms of unethical conduct in research and publication, including data fabrication and falsification. 

Data fabrication involves making up research findings, while data falsification involves manipulating research data with the intention of giving a false impression of one's findings. This includes manipulating images, removing outliers from results, changing, adding, or omitting data points, inclusion of false data, rearranging of data, polishing of analysis outputs, and others. If an author's figures are questionable, it is suggested to request the original data from the authors.

If a manuscript is found to have fabricated or falsified results, including manipulation of images and figures, it may be sanctioned. If the fraud is identified after the manuscript is published, the article may be retracted. However, there are instances where technical manipulations of images and figures are allowed for readability and balance of contrasts. Proper technical manipulation refers to adjusting the contrast and/or brightness or color balance if it is applied to the complete digital image (and not parts of the image). Any technical manipulation by the author should be notified in the cover letter to the Journal Editor upon submission. Improper technical manipulation refers to obscuring, enhancing, deleting, and/or introducing new elements into an image.

Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research has a strict policy against. Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from one's own publications, without giving credit to the original source. To avoid plagiarism, authors must cite the original source when reusing text that is copied from another source. If a study's design or the manuscript's structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited. If a manuscript is found to have fabricated or falsified results, including manipulation of images and figures, it may be sanctioned. If the fraud is identified after the manuscript is published, the article may be retracted. However, technical manipulations of images and figures are allowed for readability and balance of contrasts, as long as they are properly notified in the cover letter to the Journal Editor upon submission.


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research accepts submissions that have previously been made available as preprints provided that they have not undergone peer review. A preprint is a draft version of a paper made available online before submission to a journal.


Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research follows the guidelines set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) regarding authorship criteria. To qualify for authorship of a manuscript, the following criteria should be observed: 

  1. Substantial contributions: Authors should have made significant contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.
  2. Drafting and revising: Authors should have been involved in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
  3. Final approval: Authors should have given their final approval of the version to be published.
  4. Accountability: Authors should agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Those who have contributed to the work but do not meet all four criteria for authorship should be acknowledged in the acknowledgments section of the manuscript. Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research emphasizes the importance of accurate authorship, where only those who qualify for authorship should be included, and their contributions should be clearly stated. Authors are also required to disclose any potential conflicts of interest. Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research upholds these guidelines to ensure ethical and responsible research and publication practices. By adhering to these guidelines, the journal maintains the integrity and credibility of the published work.


Statement of authorship be submitted with the manuscript

Authors submitting their research work to Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research are required to provide a signed confirmation that includes the following statements: 

  1. The research work submitted for publication in Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research is original and has not been published or accepted for publication elsewhere, either in whole or in part. 
  2. The work conforms to the legal requirements of the country in which it was carried out, including those relating to conservation and welfare. 
  3. All authors and relevant institutions have read the submitted version of the manuscript and approve its submission. 
  4. All the persons entitled to authorship have been included. To ensure compliance with these requirements, authors must provide a signed cover letter along with their manuscript submission to Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. This letter serves as a declaration of the authors' agreement to the stated conditions.


To ensure transparency and avoid potential bias, authors submitting their work to the Editorial Office of Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research are required to declare any competing financial and/or non-financial interests related to the work under consideration. The corresponding author is responsible for submitting a statement on behalf of all authors of the paper. A conflict of interest can occur when the author, their employer, or sponsor has a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations or people working with them that could influence their research. The Editorial Office of Daagu International Journal of Basic and Applied Research uses this information to make editorial decisions and publishes the disclosures to assist readers in evaluating the article. If there are no competing interests to declare, authors should include a statement to confirm that there are no relevant financial or non-financial competing interests to report.




Authors should use submit a manuscript online along with a duly signed authorship confirmation letter. We also accept email submissions. The manuscript should be in a single file (inclusive of text, tables, and figures) or text, figures, and tables separately, preferably in Microsoft Word format or LaTex without any password control. Portable Document Format (PDF) or Postscript (PC) or Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) files can also be submitted along with the LaTex files, but they alone are not eligible for submission. The manuscript must be submitted as per the journal format, Times New Roman 12 font size with 1.5 spacing, abstract in single spacing, A4 paper with margins of 1 inch on all sides, and all the pages should be numbered.

Submission checklist
Authors can use the list to carry out a final check of their submission prior to submission to the journal for review. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact

  • E-mail address
  • ORCID ID if available
  • Full postal address
  • Authors affiliation 
  • Cover letter

Manuscript content and format 

Manuscripts should be written in English and typed 1.5 line-spaced, on A4size pages, with
margins of 1.75 cm on each side of the paper top, bottom, left, and right sides, in MS Word. A font size of 12 points and Times New Roman should be used. The major headings of the
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and REFERENCES should be left aligned and written in UPPERCASE letters. Abstract should be centered. The title of the manuscript should be centered not exceeding 20 words and placed at the top of the page and written in sentence case. All pages in papers must be numbered. The main text should be typed flush left with no indents. Insert one return between paragraphs, and a double return between paper title, and authors' names, and addresses on the first page. In some cases, the results and discussion section might be merged. 

Research papers
Research paper should not exceed 12,00words or 20 printed pages in length which includes
references, tables and figures. Only research papers with multiple studies can go beyond this
length with prior consent of editor-in-chief.
Review papers
Critical and comprehensive reviews that provide new insights or interpretation of the subject
after a thorough and systematic evaluation of available evidence, may exceed the word limit for research papers if appropriate, and subject to the Editor's agreement.
Short Communications
Short Communications are short papers that present original and significant material for rapid dissemination is limited to about 2000 words and shouldn’t be subdivided. The paper should contain an abstract, main body and references. The abstract should be limited to 100 words.


The manuscript should be divided into the following sections (in this order): Title page; Abstract, keywords (5-7); Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes on a separate page) and illustrations and figures, graphical abstracts/highlights files (where applicable). Review articles and short communication are not obligated to follow this structure. 

Title page

The title page should have the title of the manuscript, full name(s) of the author(s),
and institutional affiliations. It should also indicate name, address, email, fax, and telephone
number(s) of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript. Email addresses of
all authors are mandatory. Only standard abbreviations should be used within the title.

The abstract is a brief and concise summary of your research paper that should be fully intelligible without reference to the main text. It should contain unstructured introduction, objective, methods, results, and conclusion, and should be no more than 300 words. The abstract should provide a statement of the scope of the work and its principal findings. 

The introduction should clearly state background of the research which includes a summary of literature to indicate justification/rationale of the study and aims to contribute in field of study. It comprises of problem statement and the objectives of the study. Detailed literature survey and summary of results should be avoided.

Materials and Methods

Materials and methods include design, sampling procedures, measurements, data collection and analysis. Studies which involve human participants should have a detailed statement of ethical approval and consent in the methods.

When presenting research results, it is important to only include pertinent information and to use tables and figures only when necessary. Tables and figures should not duplicate data, and any data that can be presented in two or fewer columns and rows should be presented in the text. Each table and figure must be referred to in the text, and the reader should be told what to look for when using them. Tables should be comprehensible, and a reader should be able to express an opinion about the results just by looking at the tables without reading the main text. 


This section describes interpretation, reasoning and implications of the results obtained. It should include strong comparison of results with other related previous studies. Furthermore, authors should avoid redundancy of results in in this section. As indicated in the previous section, a combined results and discussion section is also allowed.

Conclusion should state clearly the main inferences of the research findings and it should be self-explanatory and highlighting their importance and relevance. 

Authors are required to seek permission from all individuals acknowledged in the Acknowledgements section, including those who do not meet the criteria for authorship but have significant contributions, such as those who provided professional writing services or materials.


The source of funding must be clearly stated as “This study was financially supported by XXXX”. If funding was not received for the study, it has to be clearly indicated as “No financial support was received from any organization or individual”. 

All references in the text should be listed in the reference section. References should not appear in the reference list if they are not quoted in the text. References should be listed in alphabetical order and then further sorted chronologically, if necessary, APA style for reference listing and citation as it is convenient and widely adapted by the different reputed journals. We encourage authors use reference managers such as Mendeley and Endnote. The following usage should be confirmed.

Reference to journal publication 

Schmidt, F. L. (2016). The crisis of confidence in research findings in psychology: Is lack of replication the real problem? Or is it something else? Archives of Scientific Psychology, 4, 32–37. 

Schmidt, F. L. & Oh, I.-S. (2016). The crisis of confidence in research findings in
psychology: Is lack of replication the real problem? Or is it something else? Archives of
 Scientific Psychology
, 4, 32–37. 

Madin, J. S., McWilliam, M., Quigley, K., Suggett, D. J., & van Oppen, M. J. H. (2023). Selecting coral species for reef restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 60, 1537–1544. 


Reference to a Book:

Moss, B. 1998. Ecology of fresh waters, man and medium. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 557p. 

Moss, B. 1998. Ecology of fresh waters, man and medium. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pp. 455-460.

Reference to a book chapter

Singh, A. A., Hwahng, S. J., Chang, S. C., White, B. (2017). Affirmative counseling with
 trans/gender-variant people of color. In A. Singh & L. M. Dickey (Eds.), Affirmative
 counseling and psychological practices with transgender and gender nonconforming clients (pp. 41–68). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  

Citation from the web

When citing information from the internet, authors should ensure that fully authenticated addresses are included in the reference list, along with titles, years, authors of the sources being cited and accession date. The information should be of scientific quality at least equal to that of peer-reviewed information available in learned scientific journals. The format for citing web pages is similar to that of citing print content, with the URL typically included at the end of the entry. Publications that must be cited include books, book chapters, articles, web pages, theses, etc.

In-text citation 

When citing references in a text (Madin et al., 2023), the author's surname should be followed by the year of publication, and references should be cited chronologically (Madin et al., 2023; Schmidt, 2016; Schmidt & Oh, 2016). If multiple contributions by the same author were published (Schmidt & Oh, 2016)) in the same year, a distinction should be made by adding a, b, or c1 e.g., e.g. (Koschel, 1981a; Meyer and Huss, 1999a, b). Ethiopian names should be uniformly used (Schmidt, 2016). Titles of journals should not be abbreviated. Unpublished material, except for Ph.D theses, should not be included among the references.


When including figures and tables in an article, the following guidelines should be followed: 

  • References to tables should not be abbreviated, i.e., they should be referred to as "Table 1".
  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Figures, including photographs, should be referred to in the article text as "Figure 1" and multiple figures as "Figures 2–4".
  • All lettering and symbols in the figures should be clear and easy to read.
  • Legends should provide enough details for the figure or table to be understood without reference to the main text.
  • Information appearing in the figure should not be duplicated in the legend.
  • Figures and tables should be presented in the manuscript file with their legends
  • They may be either embedded in a relevant position in the main text or placed at the end of the document.

These guidelines ensure that figures and tables are properly referenced and presented in a clear and understandable manner within the article.